The Mughal brought with them a love for gardens, fountains and water. The first mature example of Mughal architecture in India, Humayun's Tomb was built by the emperor's grieving widow, Haji Begum, in 1565 AD, Constructed with red sandstone and ornamented marks the beginning of a new tradition of ornate style which culminated in the Taj Mahal of Agra. Designed by the Persian architect, Mirza Ghyas, Humayun's Tomb shows a marked shift from the Persian tradition of using coloured tiles for ornamentation.
Located in the midst of a large square garden, screened by high walls, with gateways to the south and west, the tomb is a square tower surmounted by a magnificent marble dome. The dome stands 140 feet from the base of the terrace and is topped with a copper pinnacle. In addition to the remains of Humayun, the complex also houses the grave of many other distinguished members of the Mughal dynasty.
The tomb was built by Humayun�s senior widow Bega Begam, popularly known as Haji Begam, nine years after her death in 1565 according to some, but fourteen years according to the manuscript of an 18th century text. It is the first substantial example of the Mughal architecture, with high arches and double dome, with occurs here for the first time in India. Although some toms had already been sited within gardens, it is also the first mature example of the idea of garden-tomb, which culminated in the Taj-Mahal at Agra.
The enclosure is entered through two lofty double-storeyed gateways, one on the west and the other on the south, the latter now remaining closed. �Abaradari� (pavilion) occupies the centre of the eastern wall of the enclosure and a bath-chamber that of the northern wall.
At the center of New Delhi stands the 42m high India Gate, an Arc-de-Triomphe like Archway in the middle of a crossroad, almost similar to its French counterpart war memorial. It commemorates the 70,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives fighting for the British Army during the First World War and bears the names of more than 13,516 British and Indian soldiers killed in the Northwestern Frontier in the Afghan war of 1919.
The foundation stone was laid by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught in 1921 and was designed by Edwin Lutyens. The monument was dedicated to the nation 10 years later by the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin. Another memorial, Amar Jawan Jyoti was added much later, after India got its independence. It is in the form of a flame that burns day and night under the arch to remind the nation of soldiers who laid their lives in the Indo-Pakistan War of December 1971.
Surrounding the imposing structure is a large expanse of lush green lawns, which is a popular picnic spot. One can see hoards of people moving about the brightly lit area and on the lawns on summer evenings.
Also Known As: Lal-Darwaza or Kabuli Darwaza
Right on the Mathura road near Maulana Azad Medical College stands a double- storeyed imposing gate, built largely with grey stone, red stone having been used in the frames of its windows.
It is believed to be one of the gates of Sher Shah’s city of Delhi, although no remains of a city-wall have been traced in continuation with it. Another surviving gate of the city has been described earlier.
It is also known as Lal-Darwaza and has derived the name ‘Khuni-Darwaza’ (bloody gate), from the tradition that two of Bahadur Shah’s sons were hanged here.